Swift Package Index

Prelude

https://github.com/wayfair/prelude.git


Compatibility

  • 0.6.3 and master
    5.3
    5.2
    5.1
    5.0
    4.2
  • 0.6.3 and master
    iOS
    macOS(Intel)
    macOS(ARM)
    Linux
    tvOS
    watchOS

Prelude

Actions Status

Prelude is a library, developed at Wayfair, for functional programming in Swift. We use this library in our apps to build features in a functional style.

Installation

Prelude can be installed in your project via Carthage or Swift Package Manager. CocoaPods support is forthcoming.

Carthage customization hook

If you’re incorporating Prelude via Carthage and need to tweak build settings (for example, perhaps you want to build the library as a static framework instead, to improve app launch times), we’ve included a reference to a magic customization file which may be able to help you.

If there’s anything else we can do to support integrating Prelude into your project, please open an issue!

Contents

  • Change Tracking: a specialization of the Writer monad that keeps track of changes to an enclosed value
  • Reducers: Redux-style reducers that compose together and support both inout and non-inout usage
  • Functional Glue: a handful of the most important general functions for implementing functional features
  • Operators: a handful of the most important functional operators, with appropriate precedences for Swift

Read on for details, or go directly to the playground

Change Tracking

1. Use Changeable to record when a value has changed

Changeable is a wrapper type that lets you bundle a hasChanged flag alongside a piece of data. Use it if you need to let someone know whether or not a value has changed:

let wasUpdated = Changeable(hasChanged: true, value: "foo")

2. Return Changeable from a function to signify a no-op

Changeable becomes more useful when used as the return value of a function. You can easily communicate to callers whether their call into you was a no-op:

struct User { var firstName: String }

/// return a new `User` value with the first name changed to "hamburgers".
/// If the first name is already "hamburgers", do nothing.
func updateFirstName(_ user: User) -> Changeable<User> {
    if user.firstName == "hamburgers" {
        return Changeable(hasChanged: false, value: user)
    } else {
        let newUser = User(firstName: "hamburgers")
        return Changeable(hasChanged: true, value: newUser)
    }
}

let myUser = User(firstName: "hamburgers")
updateFirstName(myUser) // .hasChanged => false

3. Chain these kind of functions together with flatMap

If you need to transform many aspects of a value, write a series of small transformation functions, chain them together with flatMap, and then check if anything changed at the end:

/// return a new `User` value with the first name changed to "hamburgers".
/// If the first name is already "hamburgers", do nothing.
func updateFirstName(_ user: User) -> Changeable<User> {
    /* implementation omitted */
}

/// return a new `User` value with the last name changed to "kale".
/// If the last name is already "kale", do nothing.
func updateLastName(_ user: User) -> Changeable<User> {
    /* implementation omitted */
}

let myUser = User(firstName: "hamburgers", lastName: "kale")
Changeable(value: myUser)
    .flatMap(updateFirstName)
    .flatMap(updateLastName) // .hasChanged => false

let someoneElse = User(firstName: "peter", lastName: "kale")
Changeable(value: someoneElse)
    .flatMap(updateFirstName)
    .flatMap(updateLastName) // .hasChanged => true

4. Add functional spice by using the >>- (“bind”) operator

>>- is just a synonym for flatMap. It works the same way, but you don’t have to type as many parentheses:

let myUser = User(firstName: "hamburgers", lastName: "kale")
Changeable(value: myUser)
    >>- updateFirstName
    >>- updateLastName // .hasChanged => false (same code as above)

5. Easily write chainable transformation functions with Changeable.write

Writing handmade transformation functions like updateFirstName can be time-consuming. For a quick update, use Changeable.write to generate transformation functions just like the above, built from Swift key paths.

let myUser = User(firstName: "hamburgers", lastName: "kale")
Changeable(value: myUser)
    >>- Changeable.write("hamburgers", at: \.firstName)
    >>- Changeable.write("kale", at: \.lastName) // .hasChanged => false (same overall transformation as above)

6. Incorporate domain logic into Changeable.write functions by closing over values

However, complex changes may require more than the simple syntax above. This snippet uses a flag from the enclosing scope to determine whether or not to write one of its changes:

let makeTheChange = true

let myUser = User(firstName: "hamburgers", lastName: "kale")
Changeable(value: myUser)
    >>- Changeable.write("peter", at: \.firstName, shouldChange: { _, _ in makeTheChange })
    >>- Changeable.write("kale", at: \.lastName)

7. Use local mutation when convenient

If your Changeable value is a var, you can .write directly to it instead of having to do any flatMapping or >>-ing. This snippet also uses the functional shorthand pure to quickly “lift” a plain Person value into a Changeable value:

var mutateMe = pure(Person(firstName: "hamburgers", lastName: "kale"))
mutateMe.write("hamburgers", at: \.firstName)
mutateMe.write("kale", at: \.lastName)
mutateMe.hasChanged // => false

Reducers

1. Reducers give reducing functions a name

Sequence.reduce is a powerful function, but the functions that are passed to it are usually just written inline. Since these functions can be very useful, wrap them in a Reducer to give them a name, share them, and pass them around:

let sumOfIntegers: Reducer<Int, Int> = .nextPartialResult { sum, integer in
    return sum + integer
}

[1, 2, 3].reduce(0, sumOfIntegers) // => 6

2. Use followed(by:) to chain reducers together

If the types match, it’s possible to build larger reducers out of small ones by chaining them together. They execute sequentially:

let productOfIntegers: Reducer<Int, Int> = .nextPartialResult { product, integer in
    return product * integer
}

let bigReducer = sumOfIntegers.followed(by: productOfIntegers)

[1, 2, 3].reduce(0, bigReducer) // => 27

3. Use the <> operator to chain many reducers together, and don’t worry about the parens

<> is just a synonym for followed(by:), and it can be shown that this operation is associative. So when you want to chain a lot of reducers together, use <>, and there is no need to use parentheses:

let appendIntValue: Reducer<[String], Int> = .nextPartialResult { arr, integer in arr + ["\(integer)"] }
let appendIntValuePlus1: Reducer<[String], Int> = .nextPartialResult { arr, integer in arr + ["\(integer + 1)"] }
let appendIntValuePlus2: Reducer<[String], Int> = .nextPartialResult { arr, integer in arr + ["\(integer + 2)"] }

[1, 10, 100].reduce(
    [],
    appendIntValue <> appendIntValuePlus1 <> appendIntValuePlus2
) // => ["1", "2", "3", "10", "11", "12", "100", "101", "102"]

4. Existing reducers can be adapted to new types with pullback

If you have a reducer that is hungry for values of type X, but you only have values of type Y on hand, write a function that transforms Ys into Xs and then adapt your reducer using pullback. The adapted reducer will then be able to chomp the new values:

let appendIntValue: Reducer<[String], Int> = .nextPartialResult { arr, integer in arr + ["\(integer)"] }

func getCount(of string: String) -> Int { return string.count }

let appendCountValue = appendIntValue.pullback(getCount) // this reducer has been adapted
["a", "aa", "aaa"].reduce([], appendCountValue) // => ["1", "2", "3"]

5. inout Reducers

inout Reducers (reducers where the first parameter of the closure is mutable) can be extremely convenient. Our reducers are, in fact, inout by default:

let reducer: Reducer<[String], String> = .init { arr, item in arr.append(item) }

(note the usage of .init here instead of .nextPartialResult as used in previous examples)

6. Unified representation

Under the hood, all reducers are of the inout flavor. This means that regardless of how a reducer was initialized, it can interoperate with all other reducers:

let reducer: Reducer<[String], String> = .init { arr, item in arr.append(item) }

let reduceCaps: Reducer<[String], String> = .nextPartialResult { arr, item in
    return arr + [item.uppercased()]
}

let bigReducer = reducer <> reduceCaps // this is ok
["foo", "bar", "baz"].reduce([], bigReducer)

Functional Glue

Prelude.swift contains our implementations of curry, const, flip, and |>

Operators

  • <*>
  • <*
  • *>
  • >>-
  • <|>
  • |>
  • <>